Chapter 2: Basic Pronunciations 發音基礎

Pronounce the following Cantonese characters to get a feel of the sound (consonants) used in Mandarin 普通話.
After you learn the ch, zh, sh, q, x, j, r sounds, you are off to a good start in learning Mandarin.
學好發音基礎,講普通話就會準一點

ch 廣東音 差茶
zh 廣東音 中真周齋
sh 廣東音 書時鼠

Unfamiliar pinyin pronunciation for Cantonese speakers:
q 廣東音 癡青前錢槍炒千
x 廣東音 絲沙仙鼠酸
j 廣東音 支紙專進

"r" has no Cantonese sound and is hard to learn.
(Tongue points up to touch the roof of the mouth).
(ru 2nd tone) 如果ru2guo3   (ru 4th tone) 进入学校(進入學 校)jin4ru4xue2xiao4 
(ren 2nd tone) 人家ren2jia1   (ri 4th tone) 日落ri4luo4
(re 4th tone) 热水re4shui3   (rou 4th tone) 牛肉面niu2rou4mian4
(ruan 3rd tone) 软件ruan3jian4   (ran 2nd tone) 然后ran2hou4
容易rong2yi4    榮幸rong2xing4  (容 and 榮 are pronounced identically)

Ü sound. (nǚ)(3rd tone) 
(lǚ)(3rd tone)  旅游 (lǚ yóu)
律师 (lǜ shī)  (lǜ)  利率(li4lv4) 绿色(lǜ sè)